Minimizing risk of hypomethylating agent failure in patients with higher-risk MDS and practical management recommendations.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


In Europe, azacitidine is the only hypomethylating agent approved for the treatment of patients with int-2-/high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes, offering significantly improved survival compared with conventional care. However, not all patients treated with azacitidine respond to treatment, and the vast majority of responders subsequently relapse. Currently, no standard care regimens have been established for patients after failure of azacitidine. Here, we discuss treatment options after loss of response or progression on azacitidine. In addition, we briefly consider optimization of first-line treatment along with potential biomarkers for identifying and monitoring response during treatment with azacitidine.


  • Valeria Santini
  • Thomas Prebet
  • Pierre Fenaux
  • Norbert Gattermann
  • Lars Nilsson
  • Michael Pfeilstöcker
  • Paresh Vyas
  • Alan F List
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Cancer and Oncology
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1381-1391
JournalLeukemia Research: A Forum for Studies on Leukemia and Normal Hemopoiesis
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Publication categoryResearch