Mixing Time for the Dead Sea Based on Water and Salt Mass Balances

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Abstract

Water and salt mass balances for the Dead Sea were modeled to consider different possible methods for maintaining its water level and water volume. In the models, precipitation, evaporation, rivers, ground water, input/output from potash companies and salt production, and brine discharge were included. The mixing time in the Dead Sea was modeled by a 1) single-layer (well-mixed) system, and a 2) two-layer (stratified) system. Brine discharge from the desalination plant of the proposed Red Sea-Dead Sea Canal project (RSDSC) was also simulated with the model. In the single-layer approach the water level after 100 years was predicted to change from 411m below mean sea level (bmsl) (1997) to 391 m and 479 m based on a water mass balance including and excluding brine discharge from RSDSC, respectively, and to reach 402 m and 444 m for the two cases based on a salt mass balance. In the two-layer approach the water level after 90 years was predicted to change from 411m bmsl (1997) to 397m and 488m for a water mass balance including and excluding brine discharge from RSDSC, respectively, and to reach 387m and 425m for the two cases using a salt mass balance. The water residence time in a single-layer description increased from 58 to 116 years when excluding brine discharge. In the two-layer approach the exchange or mixing time increased in both layers when adding brine discharge to the system from 1.2 to 1.7 years and 11 to 15.3 years in the upper and lower layer, respectively. The models were also employed to reproduce the historical Dead Sea water level variation. Good agreement was found between the models and historical data using both water and salt mass balances.

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Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Water Engineering
  • Other Social Sciences

Keywords

  • Historical Comparison., Single-Layer and Two-Layer System, Salinity, Read Sea-Dead Sea Canal (RSDSC), Dead Sea Water Level, Water-Salt Balance, Residence and Mixing Time
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEuromed 2008
EditorsMiraim Balaban
PublisherCooperation among Mediterranean Countries of Europe and the MENA Region
Number of pages24
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Publication categoryResearch
Peer-reviewedYes
EventEuromed 2008, Desalination for Clean Water and Energy Cooperation among Mediterranean Countries of Europe and the MENA Region - King Hussein Bin Talal Convention Center, Dead Sea, Jordan November 9–13, 2008
Duration: 2008 Nov 9 → …

Conference

ConferenceEuromed 2008, Desalination for Clean Water and Energy Cooperation among Mediterranean Countries of Europe and the MENA Region
Period2008/11/09 → …

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