Modeling transmission and scatter for photon beam attenuators

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


title = "Modeling transmission and scatter for photon beam attenuators",
abstract = "The development of treatment planning methods in radiation therapy requires dose calculation methods that are both accurate and general enough to provide a dose per unit monitor setting for a broad variety of fields and beam modifiers. The purpose of this work was to develop models for calculation of scatter and transmission for photon beam attenuators such as compensating filters, wedges, and block trays. The attenuation of the beam is calculated using a spectrum of the beam, and a correction factor based on attenuation measurements. Small angle coherent scatter and electron binding effects on scattering cross sections are considered by use of a correction factor. Quality changes in beam penetrability and energy fluence to dose conversion are modeled by use of the calculated primary beam spectrum after passage through the attenuator. The beam spectra are derived by the depth dose effective method, i.e., by minimizing the difference between measured and calculated depth dose distributions, where the calculated distributions are derived by superposing data from a database for monoenergetic photons. The attenuator scatter is integrated over the area viewed from the calculation point of view using first scatter theory. Calculations are simplified by replacing the energy and angular-dependent cross-section formulas with the forward scatter constant r2(0) and a set of parametrized correction functions. The set of corrections include functions for the Compton energy loss, scatter attenuation, and secondary bremsstrahlung production. The effect of charged particle contamination is bypassed by avoiding use of dmax for absolute dose calibrations. The results of the model are compared with scatter measurements in air for copper and lead filters and with dose to a water phantom for lead filters for 4 and 18 MV. For attenuated beams, downstream of the buildup region, the calculated results agree with measurements on the 1.5% level. The accuracy was slightly less in situations where the scatter component is very large, as for very large fields with very short filter to detector distances. The implementation of the model into treatment planning systems is discussed.",
author = "Anders Ahnesj{\"o} and Lars Weber and Per Nilsson",
year = "1995",
doi = "10.1118/1.597534",
language = "English",
volume = "22",
pages = "1711--1720",
journal = "Medical Physics",
issn = "0094-2405",
publisher = "American Association of Physicists in Medicine",
number = "11",