Modelling and optimisation in European Kidney Exchange Programmes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The complex multi-criteria optimisation problems arising in Kidney Exchange Programmes have received considerable attention both in practice and in the scientific literature. Whereas theoretical advancements are well reviewed and synthesised, this is not the case for practice. We present a synthesis of models and methods applied in present European Kidney Exchange Programmes, which is based on detailed descriptions we created for this purpose. Most descriptions address national programmes, yet we also present findings on emerging cross-national programmes. The synthesis provides a systematic and detailed description of the models and methods the programmes use, revealing important commonalities as well as considerable variation among them. Rather than distilling a single best practice from these results, we find that the variation in models and methods arises because of variation in country characteristics, policies, and ethics. The synthesised state of the art may benefit future national and cross-national initiatives and direct future theoretical contributions within and across the boundaries of the Operations Research discipline.


  • Péter Biró
  • Joris van de Klundert
  • David Manlove
  • William Pettersson
  • Tommy Andersson
  • Lisa Burnapp
  • Pavel Chromy
  • Pablo Delgado
  • Piotr Dworczak
  • Bernadette Haase
  • Aline Hemke
  • Rachel Johnson
  • Xenia Klimentova
  • Dirk Kuypers
  • Alessandro Nanni Costa
  • Bart Smeulders
  • Frits Spieksma
  • María O. Valentín
  • Ana Viana
External organisations
  • Corvinus University of Budapest
  • Erasmus University Rotterdam
  • University of Glasgow
  • Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine (IKEM)
  • Northwestern University
  • Institute for Systems and Computer Engineering, Technology and Science (INESC TEC)
  • Catholic University of Leuven
  • University of Liège
  • Eindhoven University of Technology
  • Prince Mohammad bin Salman College of Business and Entrepreneurship (MBSC)
  • National Health Service Blood and Transplant
  • Spanish National Transplant Organization (ONT)
  • Dutch Transplantation Foundation (NTS)
  • Italian National Transplant Centre
  • University of Porto
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy


  • Ethics in OR, Kidney exchange, OR in health services, OR in practice
Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Operational Research
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2019 Sep 7
Publication categoryResearch