Modulations of glypican-1 heparan sulfate structure by inhibition of endogenous polyamine synthesis. Mapping of spermine-binding sites and heparanase, heparin lyase, and nitric oxide/nitrite cleavage sites
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Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans facilitate uptake of growth-promoting polyamines (Belting, M., Persson, S., and Fransson, L.-A. (1999) Biochem. J. 338, 317-323; Belting, M., Borsig, L., Fuster, M. M., Brown, J. R., Persson, L., Fransson, L.-A., and Esko, J. D. (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., in press). Here, we have analyzed the effect of polyamine deprivation on the structure and polyamine affinity of the heparan sulfate chains in various glypican-1 glycoforms synthesized by a transformed cell line (ECV 304). Heparan sulfate chains of glypican-1 were either cleaved with heparanase at sites embracing the highly modified regions or with nitrite at N-unsubstituted glucosamine residues. The products were separated and further degraded by heparin lyase to identify sulfated iduronic acid. Polyamine affinity was assessed by chromatography on agarose substituted with the polyamine spermine. In heparan sulfate made by cells with undisturbed endogenous polyamine synthesis, free amino groups were restricted to the unmodified, unsulfated segments, especially near the core protein. Spermine high affinity binding sites were located to the modified and highly sulfated segments that were released by heparanase. In cells with up-regulated polyamine uptake, heparan sulfate contained an increased number of clustered N-unsubstituted glucosamines and sulfated iduronic acid residues. This resulted in a greater number of NO/nitrite-sensitive cleavage sites near the potential spermine-binding sites. Endogenous degradation by heparanase and NO-derived nitrite in polyamine-deprived cells generated a separate pool of heparan sulfate oligosaccharides with an exceptionally high affinity for spermine. Spermine uptake in polyamine-deprived cells was reduced when NO/nitrite-generated degradation of heparan sulfate was inhibited. The results suggest a functional interplay between glypican recycling, NO/nitrite-generated heparan sulfate degradation, and polyamine uptake.
|Research areas and keywords||
Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|Publication status||Published - 2001|