Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma: IMWG consensus perspectives risk factors for progression and guidelines for monitoring and management

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Bibtex

@article{72c6e1795f024989a57e83864ed52b3c,
title = "Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma: IMWG consensus perspectives risk factors for progression and guidelines for monitoring and management",
abstract = "Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) was identified in 3.2{\%} of 21 463 residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, 50 years of age or older. The risk of progression to multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, AL amyloidosis or a lymphoproliferative disorder is approximately 1{\%} per year. Low-risk MGUS is characterized by having an M protein < 15 g/l, IgG type and a normal free light chain (FLC) ratio. Patients should be followed with serum protein electrophoresis at six months and, if stable, can be followed every 2-3 years or when symptoms suggestive of a plasma cell malignancy arise. Patients with intermediate and high-risk MGUS should be followed in 6 months and then annually for life. The risk of smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma (SMM) progressing to multiple myeloma or a related disorder is 10{\%} per year for the first 5 years, 3{\%} per year for the next 5 years and 1-2{\%} per year for the next 10 years. Testing should be done 2-3 months after the initial recognition of SMM. If the results are stable, the patient should be followed every 4-6 months for 1 year and, if stable, every 6-12 months. Leukemia (2010) 24, 1121-1127; doi:10.1038/leu.2010.60; published online 22 April 2010",
keywords = "MGUS, International Myeloma Working Group, myeloma, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering multiple",
author = "Kyle, {R. A.} and Durie, {B. G. M.} and Rajkumar, {S. V.} and O. Landgren and J. Blade and G. Merlini and N. Kroeger and H. Einsele and Vesole, {D. H.} and M. Dimopoulos and {San Miguel}, J. and H. Avet-Loiseau and R. Hajek and Chen, {W. M.} and Anderson, {K. C.} and H. Ludwig and P. Sonneveld and S. Pavlovsky and A. Palumbo and Richardson, {P. G.} and B. Barlogie and P. Greipp and R. Vescio and Ingemar Turesson and J. Westin and M. Boccadoro",
year = "2010",
doi = "10.1038/leu.2010.60",
language = "English",
volume = "24",
pages = "1121--1127",
journal = "Leukemia : official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K",
issn = "1476-5551",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "6",

}