Multi-language translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the OARSI/OMERACT measure of intermittent and constant osteoarthritis pain (ICOAP)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Aim: To conduct a multi-language translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Intermittent and Constant OsteoArthritis Pain (ICOAP) questionnaire for hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: The questionnaires were translated and cross-culturally adapted in parallel, using a common protocol, into the following languages: Czech, Dutch, French (France), German, Italian, Norwegian, Spanish (Castillan), North and Central American Spanish, Swedish. The process was conducted following five steps: (1) - independent translation into the target language by two or three persons; (2) - consensus meeting to obtain a single preliminary translated version; (3) - backward translation by an independent bilingual native English speaker, blinded to the English original version; (4) - final version produced by a multidisciplinary consensus committee; (5) - pre-testing of the final version with 10-20 target-language-native hip and knee OA patients. Results: The process could be followed and completed in all countries. Only slight differences were identified in the structure of the sentences between the original and the translated versions. A large majority of the patients felt that the questionnaire was easy to understand and complete. Only a few minor criticisms were expressed. Moreover, a majority of patients found the concepts of constant pain and pain that comes and goes to be of a great pertinence and were very happy with the distinction. Conclusion: The ICOAP questionnaire is now available for multi-center international studies. (c) 2009 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


  • J. F. Maillefert
  • M. Kloppenburg
  • L. Fernandes
  • L. Punzi
  • K.-P. Guenther
  • E. Martin Mola
  • Stefan Lohmander
  • K. Pavelka
  • M. A. Lopez-Olivo
  • M. Dougados
  • G. A. Hawker
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Rheumatology and Autoimmunity


  • Knee - Pain - ICOAP - Translation, Osteoarthritis, Hip - osteoarthritis
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1293-1296
JournalOsteoarthritis and Cartilage
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Publication categoryResearch