Multi-purpose two- and three-dimensional momentum imaging of charged particles for attosecond experiments at 1 kHz repetition rate.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


We report on the versatile design and operation of a two-sided spectrometer for the imaging of charged-particle momenta in two dimensions (2D) and three dimensions (3D). The benefits of 3D detection are to discern particles of different mass and to study correlations between fragments from multi-ionization processes, while 2D detectors are more efficient for single-ionization applications. Combining these detector types in one instrument allows us to detect positive and negative particles simultaneously and to reduce acquisition times by using the 2D detector at a higher ionization rate when the third dimension is not required. The combined access to electronic and nuclear dynamics available when both sides are used together is important for studying photoreactions in samples of increasing complexity. The possibilities and limitations of 3D momentum imaging of electrons or ions in the same spectrometer geometry are investigated analytically and three different modes of operation demonstrated experimentally, with infrared or extreme ultraviolet light and an atomic/molecular beam.


Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Original languageEnglish
Article number123304
JournalReview of Scientific Instruments
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Publication categoryResearch

Related research output

Kroon, D., 2016, 92 p.

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis (compilation)

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