N-unsubstituted glucosamine in heparan sulfate of recycling glypican-1 from suramin-treated and nitrite-deprived endothelial cells. mapping of nitric oxide/nitrite-susceptible glucosamine residues to clustered sites near the core protein
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We have analyzed the content of N-unsubstituted glucosamine in heparan sulfate from glypican-1 synthesized by endothelial cells during inhibition of (a) intracellular progression by brefeldin A, (b) heparan sulfate degradation by suramin, and/or (c) endogenous nitrite formation. Glypican-1 from brefeldin A-treated cells carried heparan sulfate chains that were extensively degraded by nitrous acid at pH 3.9, indicating the presence of glucosamines with free amino groups. Chains with such residues were rare in glypican-1 isolated from unperturbed cells and from cells treated with suramin and, surprisingly, when nitrite-deprived. However, when nitrite-deprived cells were simultaneously treated with suramin, such glucosamine residues were more prevalent. To locate these residues, chains were first cleaved at linkages to sulfated l-iduronic acid by heparin lyase and released fragments were separated from core protein carrying heparan sulfate stubs. These stubs were then cleaved off at sites linking N-substituted glucosamines to d-glucuronic acid. These fragments were extensively degraded by nitrous acid at pH 3.9. When purified proteoglycan isolated from brefeldin A-treated cells was incubated with intact cells, endoheparanase-catalyzed degradation generated a core protein with heparan sulfate stubs that were similarly sensitive to nitrous acid. We conclude that there is a concentration of N-unsubstituted glucosamines to the reducing side of the endoheparanase cleavage site in the transition region between unmodified and modified chain segments near the linkage region to the protein. Both sites as well as the heparin lyase-sensitive sites seem to be in close proximity to one another.
|Research areas and keywords||
Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|Publication status||Published - 2001|