Observations on reproductive health programs in the baltic States.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Public attention in Sweden has been drawn to three neighboring states that recently joined the European Union: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. At this historic moment, it seems instructive to look at how the rapidly reformed health sectors of these ex-Soviet republics are responding to the vision of reproductive health articulated in Cairo 10 years ago. Reproductive health and rights have improved in these states in spite of recent reforms often acting to oppose improvement. Reforms such as the introduction of family medicine need continued adjustment, especially regarding antenatal care. One special challenge is the retention of essential mid-level providers, such as midwives, as the mode of HIV transmission becomes increasingly sexual.


  • Jeffrey Lazarus
  • Jerker Liljestrand
  • R J Nadisauskiene
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Environmental Health and Occupational Health


  • Europe, Health policy, Midwifery, Reproductive health
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)277-280
JournalInternational Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2004
Publication categoryResearch