Optimal energy allocation and behaviour in female raptorial birds during the nestling period
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article
In many raptors and owls the male is the main provider of food in the early phase of the nestling period while the female incubates the eggs and broods the young. In the nestling period the female often helps the male to feed the young, but the factors affecting whether and when she leaves the brood to hunt have not been investigated in detail. We present a dynamic state variable model that analyses female behaviour and fat storage dynamics over the nestling period. The results show that in the first half of the nestling period the female faces a conflict between the need to brood the young and the need to hunt to provision them with food. This conflict arises because the energy needs of the young peak early in the nestling period, at a time when they still cannot thermoregulate and therefore need brooding from the female. The most critical period is the second nestling week, when both female and nestling fat reserves will decrease to low levels. Large female fat reserves in the early nestling period provide a solution to this conflict and are essential for successful breeding. Stochasticity in male provisioning is thus not needed to explain why females should be fat when the eggs hatch. Under normal circumstances, the female broods during the first two weeks and leaves the young only if hunting is absolutely necessary. After the second week the energy requirements are relaxed, and whether the female assists the male in hunting or not depends on factors such as male hunting success, environmental stochasticity, and energy requirements of the young. Our model provides a framework for empirical investigations on female behaviour during breeding in raptors, owls, and other birds with marked division of labour.