Own-other differences in the realism of some metacognitive judgments

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The present study investigated differences in judgments of one's own and others' knowledge (the own-other difference). Consistent with the below-average effect (e.g., Kruger, 1999), our main results showed that the participants gave lower knowledge ratings of their own extent of knowledge than of another person's extent of knowledge (Experiment 1). Furthermore, lower and more realistic judgments were found when the participants judged their own as compared with when judging another person's overall accuracy (frequency judgments) of answering knowledge questions correctly (Experiment 1 and 2). On the basis of these results it is argued that judgmental anchoring may be important also in the context of indirect comparisons, and that previous conclusions of cross-cultural psychology regarding the above-average effect may be oversimplified.


  • Marcus Johansson
  • Carl Martin Allwood
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Psychology


  • realism, social influence, frequency judgments, confidence judgments, metacognition
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-21
JournalScandinavian Journal of Psychology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Publication categoryResearch