Oxidation of marine oils during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion with human digestive fluids - Role of oil origin, added tocopherols and lipolytic activity

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), and 4-oxo-2-nonenal (ONE) in cod liver-, anchovy-, krill-, and algae oil during in vitro digestion with human gastrointestinal fluids was investigated. Adding rabbit gastric lipase, lipase inhibitor (orlistat) and tocopherols to cod liver oil, lipolysis and oxidation was also studied. Among the marine oils, the highest aldehyde levels (18 µM MDA, 3 µM HHE and 0.2 µM HNE) were detected after digestion of cod liver oil, while the lowest levels were detected in krill and algae oils. Addition of rabbit gastric lipase significantly increased the release of HNE during the digestion. Orlistat significantly reduced lipolysis and MDA formation. Formation of MDA and HHE was delayed by tocopherols, the tocopherol mix Covi-ox® T 70 EU being more effective than pure α-tocopherol.


External organisations
  • Chalmers University of Technology
  • Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Research areas and keywords


  • Aldehydes/metabolism, Animals, Digestion, Fish Oils/analysis, Humans, Malondialdehyde/metabolism, Models, Biological, Oils, Oxidation-Reduction, Rabbits, Tocopherols
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)527-537
Number of pages11
JournalFood Chemistry
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jan 1
Publication categoryResearch
Externally publishedYes