Packaging throughout the value chain in the customer perspective marketing mix

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


title = "Packaging throughout the value chain in the customer perspective marketing mix",
abstract = "Lauterborn has suggested that McCarthy's 4 P marketing mix classification be viewed by suppliers as the customers' four Cs, i.e. customer value, cost to satisfy, convenience and communication (the 4C perspective).[1] This paper seeks to illustrate the impacts of the four Cs on packaging value in the area of fast-moving consumer goods throughout the whole value chain from the packaging producer to the end-user, the consumer. Findings from two separate studies regarding trade-offs in package values between different actors in the value chain, created through development of value-adding package solutions, are presented and elaborated on. The positive effects of brand advertising can be acknowledged, but they cannot compensate for less efficient packaging. The market need will easily be affected and turned into a higher demand chain pull when creating packaging solutions that will attract retail business. Dynamics in values and trade-offs were identified, even though requirements from the whole value chain were considered. The packaging solutions created gave the majority of stakeholders in the value chain great advantages, but the lack of dynamism in available infrastructure demanded adaptation that diminished value addition for all actors in the value chain. The contribution of this article is to theorize the 4C concept in the process of package design, taking value chain actor needs and value optimisation into consideration. Furthermore, a suggestion of an evaluation model from the 4C perspective on all value chain actors is presented and elaborated on.",
keywords = "Value chain, customer value, packaging evaluation, communication, convenience, cost, packaging, logistics, packaging logistics",
author = "Annika Olsson and Micael Gy{\"o}rei",
year = "2002",
doi = "10.1002/pts.585",
language = "English",
volume = "15",
pages = "231--239",
journal = "Packaging Technology and Science",
issn = "0894-3214",
publisher = "John Wiley & Sons",
number = "5",