Patient preferences and willingness-to-pay for ADHD treatment with stimulants using discrete choice experiment (DCE) in Sweden, Denmark and Norway

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background: The choice between different attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications depends on different drug attributes. Economic evaluations of drugs often disregard the utility of other attributes compare with the drugs' efficacy. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess patient's preferences and elicit willingness-to-pay (WTP) for different drug attributes in the treatment of ADHD. Methods: 285 patients (117 parents for children below 15 years, 52 adolescents 15-17 years and 116 adults aged 18 years and above) from Sweden, Denmark and Norway completed a questionnaire concerning their ADHD drug treatment, and answered questions on their preferences using a discrete choice experiment (DCE). Included attributes were effectiveness, side-effects, dosing and price. Results: Effectiveness was the most important attribute, followed by side-effects and the number of dosings per day (all P < 0.001). The estimated monthly WTP for a drug generating full effectiveness, no side-effects and once-daily dosing was €790 for adolescents and €360 for adults. The estimated WTP for ADHD drugs with characteristics similar to existing drugs on the market was higher or in line with market prices (€37-180 for adolescents and €16-80 for adults). Regarding experience with current treatment, 19% of all patients in the study reported good functioning during the morning, day and evening. Conclusions: The gap between the monetary valuation of existing products and an optimally valued product suggest that there is room for improvements in the clinical management of ADHD. The results suggest that DCE is a method that can be used to value not only hypothetical scenarios but also can be used to value and distinguish between real-life scenarios.


External organisations
  • IHE – The Swedish Institute for Health Economics
  • RTI International
  • Aarhus University
  • Center for therapy and supervision
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy


  • ADHD, discrete choice experiment, patient preferences, willingness-to-pay
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)351-359
Number of pages9
JournalNordic Journal of Psychiatry
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Publication categoryResearch
Externally publishedYes