Patient-Reported Outcomes but not Demographic Factors Predict Normal Muscle Function 2-5 Years After ACL Injury: A Cross-Sectional Study

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Patient-reported outcomes but not Demographic Factors Predict Normal Muscle Function 2-5 Years After ACL Injury: A Cross-Sectional StudyNiklas Cederström1, Ewa Roos2, Eva Ageberg1(1)Musculoskeletal Function Research Group, Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University(2)Institute of Sport Science and Clinical Biomechanics, Musculoskeletal Function and Physiotherapy, University of Southern Denmark
Purpose:The purpose of this cross-sectional cohort study was to examine associations of patient-reported outcomes and demographic factors with muscle function mean 3 years after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury or reconstruction.Methods:Fifty-four patients were measured to determine whether knee strength and hop test scores from the injured knee had reached 90% of the uninjured knee (Ageberg, Thomeé et al. 2008). Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), activity level (Tegner Activity Scale [TAS]), and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) were analyzed using simple and multiple logistic regressions to determine their association with limb symmetry indices (LSIs) at mean 3.2 (SD 0.85) years post-injury. Results:Simple logistic regressions indicate that activity level (p = .02) and the KOOS subscale Quality of Life (QOL; p = .02) were significantly associated with a normal knee extension LSI. Vertical jump showed significant odds ratio increases of 4-15% for all KOOS subscales, and 42% for TAS (p = .03). Side-hop tests indicated a 3% increase for both function - sport and recreational activities (Sport/Rec; p = .02) and QOL (p = .03). KOOS variables were strongly correlated to one another, and weakly correlated to activity level and BMI. Conclusions:Better self-reported outcomes were associated with normal function in knee extension, vertical jump, and side-hop tests 2-5 years after ACL injury. However, biological demographic variables were not associated with normal muscle function. This lack of biological causation counters previous research (Ardern, Webster et al. 2011) and supports the need for future research into the psychology of ACL injury rehabilitation outcomes.References:Ageberg, E., R. Thomeé, C. Neeter, K. G. Silbernagel and E. M. Roos (2008). "Muscle strength and functional performance in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury treated with training and surgical reconstruction or training only: A two to five-year followup." Arthritis & Rheumatism: Arthritis Care & Research 59(12): 1773-1779.Ardern, C. L., K. E. Webster, N. F. Taylor and J. A. Feller (2011). "Return to sport following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the state of play." British Journal of Sports Medicine 45(7): 596-606.


External organisations
  • University of Southern Denmark
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Physiotherapy


  • anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), Rehabilitation, Physical Therapy, patient-reported outcome measures/PROM
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages1
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Jun
Publication categoryResearch
Event20th annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science - Malmö, Sweden
Duration: 2015 Jun 242015 Jun 27


Conference20th annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science