Performance and emissions of diesel-gasoline-ethanol blends in a light duty compression ignition engine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


An approach to reduce CO2 emissions while simultaneously keeping the soot emissions down from compression ignition (CI) engines is to blend in short chained oxygenates into the fuel. In this work, two oxygenated fuel blends consisting of diesel, gasoline and ethanol (EtOH) in the ratio of 68:17:15 and 58:14:30 have been utilized and studied in a single cylinder light duty (LD) CI engine in terms of efficiency and emissions. The reasons of utilizing gasoline in the fuel blend is due to the emulsifying properties it has while increasing the total octane rating of the fuel to be able to run the engine with a higher fraction of premixed flame. When performing the experiments, the control parameters were set as close as possible to the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) EU5 calibration of the multi-cylinder engine to study the possibility of using such blends in close to stock LD CI engines. With the oxygenates, in particular the fuel with the higher concentration of EtOH achieved an indicated net efficiency of ∼51% inf comparison to ∼47% for diesel at 8 bar BMEP. The NOX emissions increased slightly for the double injection strategy at 13 bar BMEP from ∼13.5 g/kW h to ∼14.5 g/kW h when going from diesel fuel to the higher ethanol blend. However utilizing single injection strategy at lower loads reduces the NOX. Highest soot mass measured for diesel was ∼0.46 g/kW h in contrast to ∼0.1 g/kW h for the oxygenates. Also, soot production when running the engine on the ethanol containing fuels was not significantly affected by EGR utilization as in the case of diesel. Considering particle size distribution, the particles are reduced both in terms of mean diameter and quantity. At 1500 rpm and 2 bar BMEP an increase of over ∼300% in THC and CO was measured, however, increasing the speed and load to above 2000 rpm and 8 bar BMEP respectively, made the difference negligible due to high in-cylinder temperatures contributing to better fuel oxidation. Despite having lower cetane numbers, higher combustion stability was observed for the oxygenates fuels.


External organisations
  • CNR Istituto Motori (IM)
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Energy Engineering


  • Diesel, Efficiency, Emissions, Ethanol, Gasoline, LD engine
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)78-90
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Apr 1
Publication categoryResearch

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