Periodontal conditions, retinopathy, and serum markers in individuals with type 1 diabetes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes is high and increasing. Periodontitis has been identified as a risk factor in both type 1 and 2 diabetes. The study purpose was to assess periodontal conditions, retinopathy, and serum glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA) titers in relation to retinopathy in individuals with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D).

METHODS: The study is a case series. Adult individuals with a diagnosis of T1D (n = 85) monitored ≥five years were recruited from an endocrinology clinic. Peripheral venous blood samples were analyzed including assessments of serum HbA1c levels and GADA titers. Medical and periodontal conditions were examined, and the data assessed. Independent t-tests, binary and multivariate analyses, chi square and odds ratios were employed.

RESULTS: Gingivitis was found in 68.2%, periodontitis in 21.2%, and retinopathy in 64.7%, GADA (≥35 U/ml) in 54.1%, and serum HbA1c > 48 mmol/mol in 94.3% of the individuals. The unadjusted odds ratio for periodontitis to differentiate a diagnosis of retinopathy was 7.3 (95%CI 1.6, 4.4, p <0.01). Multivariate analyses identified the following dependent factors to differentiate retinopathy; age, T1D duration, gingivitis, periodontitis at p < 0.001, gender, and serum GADA at P < 0.01, and by the number of remaining teeth at P < 0.05.

CONCLUSION: Retinopathy as a complication to T1D is linked to the duration of diabetes, age of the individual and with increasing severity to periodontitis. Periodontal intervention studies are warranted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Details

Authors
  • Cecilia Widén
  • Helene Holmer
  • Susanna Sättlin
  • Stefan Renvert
  • Åke Lernmark
  • G Rutger Persson
Organisations
External organisations
  • Central Hospital Kristianstad
  • Blekinge Institute of Technology
  • University of Washington, Seattle
  • Kristianstad University
  • Skåne University Hospital
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Endocrinology and Diabetes
  • Dentistry
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1436-1443
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Periodontology
Volume91
Issue number11
Early online date2020 Jun 2
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Nov
Publication categoryResearch
Peer-reviewedYes