Perspectives in fluid biomarkers in neurodegeneration from the 2019 biomarkers in neurodegenerative diseases course - A joint PhD student course at University College London and University of Gothenburg

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


Until relatively recently, a diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders was principally based on clinical presentation, with post-mortem examination remaining a gold standard for disease confirmation. This is in sharp contrast to other areas of medicine, where fluid biomarkers, such as troponin levels in myocardial infarction, form an integral part of the diagnostic and treatment criteria. There is a pressing need for such quantifiable and easily accessible tools in neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper, based on lectures given at the 2019 Biomarkers in Neurodegenerative Diseases Course, we provide an overview of a range of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood biomarkers in neurodegenerative disorders, including the 'core' AD biomarkers amyloid β (Aβ) and tau, as well as other disease-specific and general markers of neuroaxonal injury. We then highlight the main challenges in the field, and how those could be overcome with the aid of new methodological advances, such as assay automation, mass spectrometry and ultrasensitive immunoassays. As we hopefully move towards an era of disease-modifying treatments, reliable biomarkers will be essential to increase diagnostic accuracy, allow for earlier diagnosis, better participant selection and disease activity and treatment effect monitoring.


  • Pawel Obrocki
  • Ayesha Khatun
  • Deborah Ness
  • Konstantin Senkevich
  • Jörg Hanrieder
  • Federica Capraro
  • Niklas Mattsson
  • Ulf Andreasson
  • Erik Portelius
  • Nicholas J. Ashton
  • Kaj Blennow
  • Michael Schöll
  • Ross W. Paterson
  • Jonathan M. Schott
  • Henrik Zetterberg
External organisations
  • University College London
  • King's College London
  • Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI)
  • Sahlgrenska Academy
  • Francis Crick Institute
  • Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust
  • Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute'
  • University of Gothenburg
  • Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Wallenberg Laboratory
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Neurology


  • Amyloid, Biomarkers, ELISA, Mass spectrometry, Neurodegeneration, Neurofilament light, Neurogranin, Simoa, Tau, α-Synuclein
Original languageEnglish
Article number20
JournalAlzheimer's Research and Therapy
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Feb 28
Publication categoryResearch