Potential of multi-photon upconversion emissions for fluorescence diffuse optical imaging

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The spatial resolution of fluorescence molecular imaging is a critical issue for the success of the technique in biomedical applications. One important method for increasing the imaging resolution is to utilize multi-photon emissions. In this study, we thoroughly investigate the potential of the multi-photon upconversion emissions from rare-earth-doped upconverting nanoparticles for the improvement in spatial resolution of diffuse optical imaging. It is found that the imaging resolution is increased by a factor of 1.45 through employing two-photon upconversion emission compared with using the linear emission, and can be further elevated by a factor of 1.23 by using three-photon upconversion emission. In addition, we demonstrate that the pulsed excitation approach holds the promise of overcoming the low quantum yield associated with the high-order upconversion emissions. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America


  • Haichun Liu
  • Can Xu
  • Stefan Andersson-Engels
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17782-17790
JournalOptics Express
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Publication categoryResearch