Prediction of Long-Term Outcome After Intracerebral Hemorrhage Surgery

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background: Surgery for spontaneous primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains controversial. Previous surgical trials have primarily focused on short-term mortality while studies on long-term functional outcome are rare. We therefore conducted this retrospective study of long-term outcome on all ICH patients who underwent craniotomy at a single neurosurgical center during a 10-year period. Methods: We included all patients >15 years of age who underwent evacuation of spontaneous ICH at Skåne University Hospital between 2003 and 2012. Case fatality at 30 days, 1 year, and long-term follow-up (up to 10 years) were analyzed in relation to potential predictors of outcome. Long-term functional outcome was assessed in 2013 by telephone interview using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Results: Of 229 operated patients, overall case fatality was 20% at 30 days and 31% at 1 year. For patients with supratentorial ICH, the case fatality was 16% at 30 days and 27% at 1 year, and 29% at 30 days and 41% at 1 year for patients with cerebellar ICH. The most consistent independent predictors of mortality were preictal heart disease and level of consciousness on admission. Of 185 patients with long-term functional outcome available (median follow-up 6.14 years), 44 of them (24%) had a good outcome (mRS score 0–3) and 141 (76%) were severely disabled or dead (mRS score 4–6). Conclusions: The case fatality in our study was comparatively low, but most survivors lived dependently several years after surgery. Heart disease and level of consciousness were the most consistent predictors of mortality.


External organisations
  • Skåne University Hospital
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Surgery
  • Neurology


  • Intracerebral hemorrhage, Long-term outcome, Prognosis, Risk factors, Surgery
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e96-e105
JournalWorld Neurosurgery
Early online date2018 Dec 19
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Publication categoryResearch