Predictors of long-term cognitive outcome in Alzheimer's disease.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Introduction: The objective of this study was to describe the longitudinal cognitive outcome in Alzheimer’s
disease (AD) and analyze factors that affect the outcome, including the impact of different cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEI).
Methods: In an open, three-year, nonrandomized, prospective, multicenter study, 843 patients were treated with
donepezil, rivastigmine, or galantamine in a routine clinical setting. At baseline and every six months, patients were assessed using several rating scales, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) and the dose of ChEI was recorded. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were investigated. The relationships of these predictors with longitudinal cognitive ability were analyzed using mixed-effects models.
Results: Slower long-term cognitive decline was associated with a higher cognitive ability at baseline or a lower
level of education. The improvement in cognitive response after six months of ChEI therapy and a more positive
longitudinal outcome were related to a higher mean dose of ChEI, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)/
acetylsalicylic acid usage, male gender, older age, and absence of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele. More
severe cognitive impairment at baseline also predicted an improved response to ChEI treatment after six months.
The type of ChEI agent did not influence the short-term response or the long-term outcome.
Conclusions: In this three-year AD study performed in a routine clinical practice, the response to ChEI treatment
and longitudinal cognitive outcome were better in males, older individuals, non-carriers of the APOE ε4 allele,
patients treated with NSAIDs/acetylsalicylic acid, and those receiving a higher dose of ChEI, regardless of the drug agent.


Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Medicine
Original languageEnglish
Article number23
JournalAlzheimer’s Research & Therapy
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Publication categoryResearch

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