Pregnancy in women diagnosed with hiv on antiretroviral therapy in ethiopia: A retrospective cohort study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Introduction: due to increasing coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART), more women living with HIV have improved health condition which also increases their chances of getting pregnant. However, the knowledge about pregnancy among women receiving ART in resource-constrained settings, like Ethiopia, is limited. The aim was to assess factors associated with pregnancy among women living with HIV in Ethiopia. Methods: a retrospective cohort study from 2005 through 2013 including a total of 809 women aged 15-49 years on ART was used. The study was conducted in eight hospitals and health centers in two regions of Ethiopia. The data was collected between March and June of 2014 from patients´ pre-ART and ART registers by trained nurses, assisted by data entry clerks and supervised by senior physicians. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis were used to examine the probability of becoming pregnant. Factors associated with pregnancy were presented with hazard ratios with 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Results: a total of 809 women were included in this analysis, their median age was 27 years, 90% were urban residents and 40.6% were married. Four hundred eighty three (60.6%) were in WHO stage III at initiation of ART. The median CD4 count was 162.5 cell/μl at initiation of ART. Eighty-one women became pregnant during 3069 person-years of observation. The overall incidence of pregnancy was 26.4 pregnancies per 1000 person-years of observation. Women under the age of 24, those in less advanced disease stage, women with no education and those with college education had higher rates of pregnancy. Conclusion: the results highlight that younger women, those in less advanced disease stage, either uneducated or highly educated ones have higher probability of becoming pregnant during HIV treatment. This suggests the need for integrating reproductive health services into HIV care services to meet the needs of women on ART.


External organisations
  • Royal Netherlands Tuberculosis Association (KNCV)
  • Lund University
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
  • Infectious Medicine


  • Antiretroviral therapy, Ethiopia, HIV, Pregnancy, Women
Original languageEnglish
Article number101
Number of pages13
JournalPan African Medical Journal
Issue number101
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Publication categoryResearch