Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A2 levels are increased in early-pregnancy gestational diabetes: a novel biomarker for early risk estimation
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Aim: To determine whether pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A2 levels are increased in early pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes and whether gestation age influences levels. The possible use of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A2 as a pre-screening biomarker to reduce the need for performing oral glucose tolerance tests in pregnant women was also investigated. Methods: Pregnant women were diagnosed with gestational diabetes in early pregnancy after a 2-hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test in the catchment area of Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden during 2011–2015 (n = 99). Age- and BMI-matched pregnant women without diabetes were recruited at similar gestational ages from maternal healthcare centres in the same geographical area during 2014–2015 to act as controls (n = 100). Circulating pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A2 was analysed in participant serum using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Results: Circulating pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A2 was increased in women diagnosed with gestational diabetes [13.5 (9.58–18.8) ng/ml] compared with controls [8.11 (5.74–11.3) ng/ml; P < 0.001]. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A2 was associated with gestational diabetes independent of age, BMI, C-peptide and adiponectin (P < 0.001). Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A2 as a pre-screening biomarker to identify women at a decreased risk of gestational diabetes resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.7%, with a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 30% at a cut-off level of 6 ng/ml. Conclusions: This is the first study to show increased pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A2 levels in gestational diabetes. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A2 also shows promise as a pre-screening biomarker with the potential to reduce the need for performing oral glucose tolerance tests in early pregnancy. Future prospective cohort studies in a larger group of both high- and low-risk women are, however, needed to further confirm this observation.
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Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 2019 Jul 24|