Prevalence of post-thrombotic syndrome after cardiac catheterization

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


BACKGROUND: As the survival of children with cardiac disease increases, chronic complications of deep venous thrombosis from cardiac catheterization, particularly post-thrombotic syndrome, may be important to monitor for and treat, if needed. We aimed to determine the prevalence of this syndrome in children who underwent cardiac catheterization.

PROCEDURE: We conducted a cross-sectional study of children <18 years old at least 1 year from first catheterization through the femoral vein. We used the Manco-Johnson instrument, the only tool validated in children, to diagnose post-thrombotic syndrome. We defined the syndrome as a score ≥ 1. It was considered physically and functionally significant if the score was ≥ 1 in both physical and functional domains of the instrument. We also conducted ultrasonography to assess for thrombosis and valvular insufficiency.

RESULTS: We enrolled 62 children with a median age of 4 months during catheterization and a median of 5.4 years since catheterization. A total of 40 children had post-thrombotic syndrome (prevalence: 64.5%; 95% confidence interval: 51.3-76.3%), the majority of which were mild. Presence of cyanotic congenital heart disease, total number of catheterizations, use of antithrombotic agents at any time after the first catheterization, age at first catheterization, or time since first catheterization was not associated with the syndrome. A total of seven children (prevalence: 11.3%; 95% confidence interval: 3.2-19.4%) had physically and functionally significant syndrome. None of the children had abnormalities on ultrasonography at the time of enrollment.

CONCLUSIONS: Post-thrombotic syndrome is a common complication after cardiac catheterization. Manifestations are usually mild and unlikely to require treatment.


External organisations
  • Yale University
  • Yale New Haven Children's Hospital
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
  • Pediatrics


  • Cardiac Catheterization/adverse effects, Child, Child, Preschool, Connecticut/epidemiology, Cross-Sectional Studies, Female, Femoral Vein/surgery, Follow-Up Studies, Heart Diseases/complications, Humans, Male, Postthrombotic Syndrome/epidemiology, Prevalence, Prognosis, Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1222-7
Number of pages6
JournalPediatric Blood & Cancer
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Jul
Publication categoryResearch
Externally publishedYes