Prognosis for intracerebral hemorrhage during ongoing oral anticoagulant treatment

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most serious adverse effect of treatment with oral anticoagulants. Prognostic data after ICH associated with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) compared to vitamin K antagonists (VKA) are sparse. We compared 90-day survival and functional outcome following NOAC-ICH versus VKA-ICH using data from the Swedish Stroke Register (Riksstroke). Methods: Using data from Riksstroke and the Swedish Causes of Death Register between 2012 and 2016, we compared all-cause 90-day mortality for patients with NOAC-ICH versus VKA-ICH using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-rank test. Cox regression, with adjustment for age, sex, previous stroke, and level of consciousness (LOC) on admission, was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for 90-day mortality. Estimated functional outcome at 90 days, based on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), was compared between VKA- and NOAC-associated ICH using chi-squared test. Results: We included 2483 patients; 300 with NOAC-ICH and 2183 with VKA-ICH. In both groups, mean age was 79 years, and 58% were male. No significant difference between NOAC-ICH and VKA-ICH was found for all-cause 90-day mortality (44.3% NOAC-ICH versus 42.6% VKA-ICH; P = 0.54, HR = 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78-1.12) or 90-day estimated functional outcome (mRS 0-2:13.7% and 15.3%; mRS 3-5:27.3% and 28.9%, respectively (P = 0.52)). Factors predicting death were increased age (HR = 1.03; 95%CI: 1.02-1.04) and reduced LOC (drowsy: HR = 3.48; 95%CI: 2.86-4.23; comatose: HR = 12.27; 95%CI: 10.13-14.87). Conclusion: In this large study on anticoagulant-associated ICH, we found no significant difference in mortality and functional outcome at 90 days between NOAC-ICH versus VKA-ICH.


External organisations
  • Skåne University Hospital
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)415-421
JournalActa Neurologica Scandinavica
Issue number5
Early online date2019 Jan 18
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Publication categoryResearch