Prognosis of Intracerebral Hemorrhage Related to Antithrombotic Use: An Observational Study From the Swedish Stroke Register (Riksstroke)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To date, large studies comparing mortality and functional outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) during oral anticoagulant (OAC), antiplatelet, and nonantithrombotic use are few and show discrepant results. METHODS: We used data on 13 291 patients with ICH registered in Riksstroke between 2012 and 2016 to compare 90-day mortality and functional outcome following OAC-related ICH (n=2300), antiplatelet-related ICH (n=3637), and nonantithrombotic ICH (n=7354). Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses, with adjustment for relevant confounders, were used to compare 90-day mortality. Early (≤24 hours and 1-7 days) and late (8-90 days) mortality was also studied in subgroup analyses. Univariable and multivariable 90-day functional outcome, based on self-reported modified Rankin Scale, was determined using logistic regression. RESULTS: Patients with antithrombotic treatment were more often prestroke dependent, older, and had a larger comorbidity burden compared with patients without antithrombotic treatment. At 90 days, antiplatelet and OAC were associated with an increased death rate in multivariable analysis (antiplatelet ICH: hazard ratio, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.14-1.33]; OAC ICH: hazard ratio, 1.40 [95% CI, 1.26-1.57]) compared with nonantithrombotic ICH (reference). OAC ICH and antiplatelet ICH were associated with higher risk of early mortality (≤24 hours: OAC ICH: hazard ratio, 1.93 [95% CI, 1.57-2.38]; antiplatelet ICH: hazard ratio, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.13-1.54]). In multivariable analysis, the odds ratios for the association of antiplatelet and OAC treatment on functional dependency (modified Rankin Scale score, 3-5) at 90 days were nonsignificant (antiplatelet: odds ratio, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.92-1.24]; OAC: odds ratio, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.76-1.22]). CONCLUSIONS: In this large observational study, we found that 90-day mortality outcome was worse not only in OAC ICH but also in antiplatelet ICH, compared with patients with nonantithrombotic ICH. Antiplatelet ICH is common and is a serious condition with poor clinical outcome. Further studies are, therefore, warranted in determining the appropriate clinical management of these patients.


External organisations
  • Skåne University Hospital
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Neurology
  • Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems


  • anticoagulants, cerebral hemorrhage, mortality, stroke, survival
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)966-974
Number of pages9
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Publication categoryResearch