Quantification of left and right atrial kinetic energy using four-dimensional intracardiac magnetic resonance imaging flow measurements.
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Kinetic energy (KE) of atrial blood has been postulated as a possible contributor to ventricular filling. Therefore, we aimed to quantify the left and right atrial blood KE using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent CMR at 3T, including a four-dimensional phase contrast flow sequence. Mean left atrial (LA) KE was lower than right atrial (RA) KE (1.1±0.1 mJ vs 1.7±0.1 mJ, P<0.01). Three KE peaks were seen in both atria; one in ventricular systole, one during early ventricular diastole, and one during atrial contraction. The systolic LA peak was significantly smaller than the RA peak (P<0.001), and the early diastolic LA peak was larger than the RA peak (P<0.05). Rotational flow contained 46 ± 7% of total KE, and conserved energy better than non-rotational flow did. The KE increase in early diastole was higher in the LA (P<0.001). Systolic KE correlated with the combination of atrial volume and systolic velocity of the atrioventricular plane displacement (R2=0.57 for LA and R2=0.64 for RA). Early diastolic KE of the LA correlated with LV mass (R2=0.28), however no such correlation was found in the right heart. This suggests that LA KE increases during early ventricular diastole due to LV elastic recoil, indicating that LV filling is dependent on diastolic suction. RV relaxation does not seem to contribute to atrial KE. Instead, atrial KE generated during ventricular systole may be conserved in a hydraulic "flywheel" and transferred to the RV through helical flow, which may contribute to RV filling.
|Research areas and keywords||
Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY
|Journal||Journal of Applied Physiology|
|Publication status||Published - 2013|