Quantification of the Formaldehyde Emissions from Different HCCI Engines Running on a Range of Fuels

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


In this paper, the formaldehyde emissions from three
different types of homogenous charge compression
ignition (HCCI) engines are quantified for a range of
fuels by means of Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR)
spectroscopic analysis. The engines types are
differentiated in the way the charge is prepared. The
characterized engines are; the conventional port fuel
injected one, a type that traps residuals by means of a
Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) and finally a Direct
Injected (DI) one. Fuels ranging from pure n-heptane to
iso-octane via diesel, gasoline, PRF80, methanol and
ethanol were characterized.

Generally, the amount of formaldehyde found in the
exhaust was decreasing with decreasing air/fuel ratio,
advanced timing and increasing cycle temperature. It
was found that increasing the source of formaldehyde
i.e. the ratio of heat released in the cool-flame, brought
on higher exhaust contents of formaldehyde. The
application of a standard three-way catalyst completely
removed formaldehyde from the exhaust stream.


  • Mikael Lemel
  • Anders Hultqvist
  • Andreas Vressner
  • Henrik Nordgren
  • Håkan Persson
  • Bengt Johansson
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Other Mechanical Engineering


  • Fuel Effects, FTIR, Formaldehyde, Engine, HCCI, Combustion
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1347-1357
JournalSAE Transactions, Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2005
Publication categoryResearch

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