Radiation dose from X-ray examinations of impacted canines: Cone beam CT vs two-dimensional imaging

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Objectives: To compare the radiation dose to children examined for impacted canines, using two-dimensional (2D) examinations (panoramic and periapical radiographs) and cone beam CT (CBCT). Methods: Organ doses were determined using an anthropomorphic 10-year-old child phantom. Two CBCT devices, a ProMax3D and a NewTom5G, were examined using thermoluminescent dosimeters. For the panoramic radiograph, a Promax device was used and for periapical radiographs, a Prostyle device with a ProSensor digital sensor was used. Both the panoramic and the intraoral devices were examined using Gafchromic-QR2 dosimetric film placed between the phantom slices. Results: ProMax3D and NewTom5G resulted in an effective dose of 88 μSv and 170 μSv respectively. A panoramic radiograph resulted in an effective dose of 4.1 μSv, while a periapical radiograph resulted in an effective dose of 0.6 μSv and 0.7 μSv using a maxillary lateral projection and central maxillary incisor projection respectively. Conclusions: The effective dose from CBCT ranged from 140 times higher dose (NewTom5G compared to two periapical radiographs) to 15 times higher dose (ProMax3D compared to three periapical and one panoramic radiograph) than a 2D examination.


External organisations
  • Karolinska Institutet
  • Karolinska University Hospital
  • Stockholm County Council
  • University of Bergen
  • Skåne University Hospital
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging


  • CBCT, Effective dose, Impacted canine, Intraoral X-ray, Panoramic X-ray
Original languageEnglish
Article number20170305
JournalDentomaxillofacial Radiology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Publication categoryResearch
Externally publishedYes