Recommendations for the standardization and interpretation of the electrocardiogram: part I: The electrocardiogram and its technology: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Electrocardiography and Arrhythmias Committee, Council on Clinical Cardiology; the American College of Cardiology Foundation; and the Heart Rhythm Society: endorsed by the International Society for Computerized Electrocardiology

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


This statement examines the relation of the resting ECG to its technology. Its purpose is to foster understanding of how the modern ECG is derived and displayed and to establish standards that will improve the accuracy and usefulness of the ECG in practice. Derivation of representative waveforms and measurements based on global intervals are described. Special emphasis is placed on digital signal acquisition and computer-based signal processing, which provide automated measurements that lead to computer-generated diagnostic statements. Lead placement, recording methods, and waveform presentation are reviewed. Throughout the statement, recommendations for ECG standards are placed in context of the clinical implications of evolving ECG technology.


  • Paul Kligfield
  • Leonard S Gettes
  • James J Bailey
  • Rory Childers
  • Barbara J Deal
  • E William Hancock
  • Gerard van Herpen
  • Jan A Kors
  • Peter Macfarlane
  • David M Mirvis
  • Olle Pahlm
  • Pentti Rautaharju
  • Galen S Wagner
  • Mark Josephson
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1306-1324
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Publication categoryResearch