Recovery from Acidification - Policy Oriented Dynamic Modeling

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis (compilation)


Dynamic biogeochemistry models are important tools for determining the time-scales of recovery from acidification. In the review process of the 1999 UNECE LRTAP Gothenburg protocol, results from dynamic models will probably be included when determining further reductions of acidifying emissions.

This thesis describes modeling of recovery from acidification using the dynamic multi-layer soil chemistry model SAFE. Sulfate adsorption was added to SAFE, modeled by a sulfate concentration and pH dependent isotherm. A method to parameterize this isotherm was developed and the isotherm was parameterized for a total of 20 sites, whereof 18 are located in Sweden, 1 in Germany and 1 in Poland. The SAFE model including sulfate adsorption was applied to 19 of these. The addition of sulfate adsorption improved the predictions of sulfate dynamics, especially at sites where there had been large deposition changes and where sulfate adsorption capacity is high.

Three of the modeled sites are well-studied single-sites and 16 sites are a part of regional study. Differences in data requirements and model output for the different types of studies are discussed from a policy perspective. The influence of climate driven changes in sea-salt deposition and of changes in forest practices and vegetation on model predictions of recovery is also discussed.

The SAFE model applications show that many sites in Sweden and Europe are still severely acidified and that soil recovery will require both further emission reductions and many decades of time.


  • Liisa Fransson
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Chemical Engineering


  • Kemiteknik och kemisk teknologi, Petrology, mineralogy, geochemistry, Petrologi, mineralogi, geokemi, Chemical technology and engineering, target loads, sea-salt episode, sulfate adsorption, SAFE, LRTAP, critical loads, integrated assessment
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
Supervisors/Assistant supervisor
  • [unknown], [unknown], Supervisor, External person
Award date2004 Apr 30
  • Liisa Martinson, Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund, Sweden,
Print ISBNs91-628-6016-X
Publication statusPublished - 2004
Publication categoryResearch

Bibliographic note

Defence details Date: 2004-04-30 Time: 10:15 Place: Lecture Hall 111, Geocentrum 1, Sölvegatan 10, Lund Institute of Technology External reviewer(s) Name: Cosby, J.B Title: Professor Affiliation: University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA --- Article: Martinson, L., Alveteg, M. and Warfvinge, P., 2003:Parameterization and evaluation of sulfate adsorption in a dynamic soil chemistry modelEnvironmental Pollution,124, 119-125Martinson, L., Alveteg, M., Mörth, C-M. and Warfvinge, P., 2003: The effect of changes in natural and anthropogenic deposition on modeling recovery from acidification, Hydrology and Earth Systems Sciences, 7(5), 766-776Martinson, L. and Alveteg, M., 2004:The importance of including the pH dependence of sulfate adsorption in a dynamic soil chemistry model Water, Air & Soil Pollution, 154, 349-356Martinson, L., Lamersdorf, N. and Warfvinge, P., 2004:The Solling roof revisited - slow recovery from acidification observed and modeled despite a decade of "clean-rain" treatment, Submitted for publicationMartinson, L., Alveteg, M., Kronnäs, V., Sverdrup H., Warfvinge, P., Westling, O., 2004:A regional perspective on present and future soil chemistry at 16 Swedish forest sites, Submitted for publication

Related research output

Fransson, L., Mattias Alveteg, Kronnas, V., Sverdrup, H., Westling, O. & Per Warfvinge, 2005, In : Water, Air and Soil Pollution. 162, 1-4, p. 89-105

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fransson, L. & Mattias Alveteg, 2004, In : Water, Air and Soil Pollution. 154, 1-4, p. 349-356

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fransson, L., Mattias Alveteg & Per Warfvinge, 2003, In : Environmental Pollution. 124, 1, p. 119-125

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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