Reducing bias in dual flip angle T1-mapping in human brain at 7T

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Purpose: To address the systematic bias in whole-brain dual flip angle (DFA) T1-mapping at 7T by optimizing the flip angle pair and carefully selecting RF pulse shape and duration. Theory and Methods: Spoiled gradient echoes can be used to estimate whole-brain maps of T1. This can be accomplished by using only two acquisitions with different flip angles, i.e., a DFA-based approach. Although DFA-based T1-mapping is seemingly straightforward to implement, it is sensitive to bias caused by incomplete spoiling and incidental magnetization transfer (MT) effects. Further bias is introduced by the increased B0 and B1+ inhomogeneities at 7T. Experiments were performed to determine the optimal flip angle pair and appropriate RF pulse shape and duration. Obtained T1 estimates were validated using inversion recovery prepared EPI and compared to literature values. A multi-echo readout was used to increase SNR, enabling quantification of R2* and susceptibility, X. Results: Incomplete spoiling was observed above a local flip angle of approximately 20 degrees. An asymmetric gauss-filtered sinc pulse with a constant duration of 700 us showed a sufficiently flat frequency response profile to avoid incomplete excitation in areas with high B0 offsets. A pulse duration of 700 us minimized effects from incidental MT. Conclusion: When performing DFA-based T1-mapping one should (i) limit the higher flip angle to avoid incomplete spoiling, (ii) use a RF pulse shape insensitive to B0 inhomogeneities and (iii) apply a constant RF pulse duration, balanced to minimize incidental MT.


External organisations
  • Philips Healthcare Netherlands
  • Skåne University Hospital
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Medical Image Processing
  • Neurology


  • 7T, dual flip angle, human brain, longitudinal relaxation, spoiled gradient echo, T1
Original languageEnglish
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Early online date2020 Feb 14
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2020 Feb 14
Publication categoryResearch

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