Reference study of CityGML software support: The GeoBIM benchmark 2019—Part II

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


OGC CityGML is an open standard for 3D city models intended to foster interoperability and support various applications. However, through our practical experience and discussions with practitioners, we have noticed several problems related to the implementation of the standard and the use of standardized data. Nevertheless, a systematic investigation of these issues has never been carried out, and there is thus insufficient evidence for tackling the problems. The GeoBIM benchmark project is aimed at finding such evidence by involving external volunteers, reporting on various aspects of the behavior of tools (geometry, semantics, georeferencing, functionalities), analyzed and described in this article. This study explicitly pointed out the critical points embedded in the format as an evidence base for future development. A companion article (Part I) describes the results of the benchmark related to IFC, the counterpart of CityGML within building information modeling.


  • Francesca Noardo
  • Ken Arroyo Ohori
  • Filip Biljecki
  • Claire Ellul
  • Lars Harrie
  • Thomas Krijnen
  • Helen Eriksson
  • Jordi van Liempt
  • Maria Pla
  • Antonio Ruiz
  • Dean Hintz
  • Nina Krueger
  • Cristina Leoni
  • Leire Leoz
  • Diana Moraru
  • Stelios Vitalis
  • Philipp Willkomm
  • Jantien Stoter
External organisations
  • Delft University of Technology
  • National University of Singapore
  • University College London
  • Safe Software
  • M.O.S.S. Computer Graphic Systeme GmbH
  • Sapienza University of Rome
  • Tracasa
  • Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya (ICGC)
  • Ordnance Survey
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Other Computer and Information Science


  • 3D city models, CityGML, data models, GeoBIM, interoperability, software support, standards
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)842-868
Number of pages27
JournalTransactions in GIS
Issue number2
Early online date2020 Nov 30
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Apr 1
Publication categoryResearch