Repeatability and reproducibility of longitudinal relaxation rate in 12 small-animal MRI systems

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background: Many translational MR biomarkers derive from measurements of the water proton longitudinal relaxation rate R 1 , but evidence for between-site reproducibility of R 1 in small-animal MRI is lacking. Objective: To assess R 1 repeatability and multi-site reproducibility in phantoms for preclinical MRI. Methods: R 1 was measured by saturation recovery in 2% agarose phantoms with five nickel chloride concentrations in 12 magnets at 5 field strengths in 11 centres on two different occasions within 1–13 days. R 1 was analysed in three different regions of interest, giving 360 measurements in total. Root-mean-square repeatability and reproducibility coefficients of variation (CoV) were calculated. Propagation of reproducibility errors into 21 translational MR measurements and biomarkers was estimated. Relaxivities were calculated. Dynamic signal stability was also measured. Results: CoV for day-to-day repeatability (N = 180 regions of interest) was 2.34% and for between-centre reproducibility (N = 9 centres) was 1.43%. Mostly, these do not propagate to biologically significant between-centre error, although a few R 1 -based MR biomarkers were found to be quite sensitive even to such small errors in R 1 , notably in myocardial fibrosis, in white matter, and in oxygen-enhanced MRI. The relaxivity of aqueous Ni 2+ in 2% agarose varied between 0.66 s −1 mM −1 at 3 T and 0.94 s −1 mM −1 at 11.7T. Interpretation: While several factors affect the reproducibility of R 1 -based MR biomarkers measured preclinically, between-centre propagation of errors arising from intrinsic equipment irreproducibility should in most cases be small. However, in a few specific cases exceptional efforts might be required to ensure R 1 -reproducibility.


  • John C. Waterton
  • Catherine D.G. Hines
  • Paul D. Hockings
  • Iina Laitinen
  • Sabina Ziemian
  • Simon Campbell
  • Claudia Green
  • Michael Haase
  • Katja Hassemer
  • Hans Paul Juretschke
  • Sascha Koehler
  • William Lloyd
  • Yanping Luo
  • James P.B. O'Connor
  • Kashmira Pindoria
  • Jurgen E. Schneider
  • Steven Sourbron
  • Denise Steinmann
  • Klaus Strobel
  • Sirisha Tadimalla
  • Irvin Teh
  • Andor Veltien
  • Xiaomeng Zhang
  • Gunnar Schütz
External organisations
  • Bioxydyn Ltd
  • University of Manchester
  • Merck Sharp And Dohme Corp., US
  • Antaros Medical AB
  • Chalmers University of Technology
  • Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH
  • Bayer Pharma AG
  • SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals
  • AbbVie Inc.
  • University of Leeds
  • Bruker BioSpin MRI GmbH
  • Radboud University Medical Center
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging


  • Biomarker, Error propagation, Hardware stability, MRI, Phantom, Relaxation time, Reproducibility
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-129
Number of pages9
JournalMagnetic Resonance Imaging
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Publication categoryResearch