Revision of the European species of Omphale Haliday (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae).

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Abstract

The European species of Omphale Haliday (Eulophidae: Entedoninae) are revised. The revision includes 37 species, of which eleven are newly described and the remaining 26 species are redescribed. The species are classified into six species groups, with six unplaced species. All species are fully diagnosed and thoroughly illustrated. Identification keys are provided for females and males. Two new morphological features to aid classification and identification are introduced: male genitalia and wing interference patterns (WIPs). The former has been used successfully in the classification of New World Omphale and the latter is used for the first time in a taxonomic revision. Male genitalia in Omphale have considerable interspecific variation, an unusual trait among chalcidoid Hymenoptera, and are demonstrated to be useful for classification of species and species-groups, and they also possess the only autapomorphy for Omphale. WIPs are useful to help separate some species, but cannot be used to define either the genus or species groups. Distributional data are compiled for each species and suggest a pan-european distribution for most species. Gall-midges are the known hosts for 14 species, and the absence of host overlap between species suggests that hostspecialization is a driving force for speciation. Several Omphale species are known only from females, or have a strong female biased sex ratio, suggesting thelytokous development. Apart from the 37 species included in this revision, the status for nine additional species (names) in species group aetius remain unsolved. For nomenclatorial stability, a neotype is designated for Eulophus lugens Nees (= Omphale lugens (Nees)). Elachestus obscurus Förster and Derostenus sulciscuta Thomson are transferred from Holcopelte to Omphale comb.n. Derostenus radialis Thomson and Achrysocharella americana Girault are synonymized with Omphale theana (Walker), and O. teresis Askew is synonymized with O. phruron (Walker), syn. n. The status of genus Pholema Graham is revised as it is removed from synonymy with Omphale and instead synonymized with Neochrysocharis Kurdjumov, syn. n., and the type species for Pholema, P. microstoma Graham, is transferred to Neochrysocharis, comb. n. Eugerium orbatum Szelenyi, previously transferred to Omphale, is synonymized with Asecodes congruens (Nees), syn. n.

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Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Zoology

Keywords

  • Gall-midges, Cecidomyiidae, koinobionts, endoparasitoids, thelytoky, female-biased sex-ratios, morphological characters, male genitalia, phallobase, aedeagus, wing interference patterns, WIPs, taxonomy, synonymy, new combinations, neotype, identification key
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-157
JournalZooKeys
Volume232
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Publication categoryResearch
Peer-reviewedYes