RF Compliance Study of Temperature Elevation in Human Head Model Around 28 GHz for 5G User Equipment Application: Simulation Analysis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The crowdedness of current cellular bands and the demand for higher transmission speed prompt the use of the millimeter-wave spectrum for the next-generation mobile communication. In the millimeter-wave frequencies, the dosimetric quantity for human exposure to electromagnetic fields changes from the specific absorption rate to incident power density. In this study, we used 28 GHz beam-steering patch arrays, a dipole antenna, and plane waves to investigate the temperature elevation in a multi-layer model of human head and its correlation with power density metrics. The power density averaged over one squarecentimeter in free space and the peak temperature elevation in tissue at 28 GHz have good correlation. The peak temperature elevation indicated by the power density averaged one square-centimeter also agrees well with the peak temperature elevation induced by the plane waves. The results show that the averaging area of a few square-centimeters may be a good candidate for the spatial-average power density. The findings provide valuable input to the ongoing revision and updating of relevant safety standards and guidelines.


External organisations
  • Zhejiang University
  • KTH Royal Institute of Technology
  • Sony Mobile Communications AB
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Telecommunications
  • Environmental Health and Occupational Health


  • 28 GHz, 5G, antenna array, human head, incident power density, millimeter wave, RF compliance safety guidelines, safety standards, temperature elevation, user equipment
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)830-838
JournalIEEE Access
Early online date2017 Nov 20
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Publication categoryResearch