Risk-Adapted Treatment in Clinical Stage I Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Testicular Cancer: The SWENOTECA Management Program.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


PURPOSE: To offer minimized risk-adapted adjuvant treatment on a nationwide basis for patients with clinical stage 1 (CS1) nonseminomatous germ-cell testicular cancer (NSGCT). The aim was to reduce the risk of relapse and thereby reducing the need of later salvage chemotherapy while maintaining a high cure rate. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1998 to 2005, 745 Norwegian and Swedish patients were included into a prospective, community-based multicenter Swedish and Norwegian Testicular Cancer Project (SWENOTECA) management program. Treatment strategy depended on the presence or absence of vascular tumor invasion (VASC). VASC-positive patients were recommended brief adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP), whereas VASC-negative patients could choose between ACT and surveillance. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 4.7 years, there have been 51 relapses. On surveillance, 41.7% of VASC+ patients relapsed, compared with 13.2% of VASC- patients. After one course of BEP, 3.2% of VASC+ and 1.3% of VASC- patients relapsed. The toxicity of adjuvant BEP was low. Eight patients have died, none died from progressive disease. CONCLUSION: One course of adjuvant BEP reduces the risk of relapse by approximately 90% in both VASC+ and VASC- CS1 NSGCT, and may be a new option as initial treatment for all CS1 NSGCT. One course of adjuvant BEP for VASC+ CS1 reduces the total burden of chemotherapy compared with surveillance or two courses of BEP. SWENOTECA currently recommends one course of BEP as standard treatment of VASC+ CS1 NSGCT, whereas both surveillance and one course of BEP are options for VASC- CS1 NSGCT.


  • Torgrim Tandstad
  • Olav Dahl
  • Gabriella Cohn-Cedermark
  • Eva Cavallin-Ståhl
  • Ulrika Stierner
  • Arne Solberg
  • Carl Langberg
  • Roy M Bremnes
  • Anna Laurell
  • Hans Wijkstrøm
  • Olbjørn Klepp
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Cancer and Oncology
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2122-2128
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Publication categoryResearch