Second malignancies in multiple myeloma; emerging patterns and future directions

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


The changing landscape of treatment options for multiple myeloma has led to a higher proportion of patients achieving deep, long-lasting responses to therapy. With the associated improvement in overall survival, the development of subsequent second malignancies has become of increased significance. The risk of second malignancy after multiple myeloma is affected by a combination of patient-, disease- and therapy-related risk factors. This review discusses recent data refining our knowledge of these contributing factors, including current treatment modalities which increase risk (i.e. high-dose melphalan with autologous stem cell transplant and lenalidomide maintenance therapy). We highlight emerging data towards individualized risk- and response-adapted treatment strategies and discuss key areas requiring future research.


  • Kylee Maclachlan
  • Benjamin Diamond
  • Francesco Maura
  • Jens Hillengass
  • Ingemar Turesson
  • C. Ola Landgren
  • Dickran Kazandjian
External organisations
  • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
  • Roswell Park Cancer Institute
  • Skåne University Hospital
  • National Cancer Institute, USA
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Hematology


  • Autologous, Lenalidomide, Melphalan, Multiple myeloma, Neoplasms, Risk factors, Second primary, Transplantation
Original languageEnglish
Article number101144
JournalBest Practice and Research: Clinical Haematology
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2020 Jan 11
Publication categoryResearch