Selective pressurized hot water extraction of nutritious macro-nutrients vs. micro-nutrients in Moringa oleifera leaves—a chemometric approach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Moringa oleifera leaves are widely used in traditional medicine as a food supplement because they are high in essential and nutritious content. Pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE), which is a green approach, was used for the recovery of the macro-nutrient and micro-nutrient elements from dried leaf powder of Moringa oleifera. In this study, response surface methodology was applied to assess the influence of temperature (50–200 °C) and time (5–60 min) on the extractability pattern of macro-nutrient and micro-nutrient elements from the leaves of Moringa oleifera when processed by PHWE. The quantification of macro-nutrient elements such as Ca, K and Mg and micro-nutrient elements like Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn from the leaves was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Obtained results revealed that the extraction of macro-nutrient elements from the Moringa oleifera leaves was enhanced by increasing the extraction time more than the extraction temperature. On the contrary, the amounts of extractable micro-nutrient elements were increased by increasing the extraction temperature. Hence, the recovery for macro-nutrient elements ranged from 88 to 98% while for micro-nutrients it ranged from 21 to 46%. This implies that macro-nutrient elements are extracted with relatively high selectivity in relation to micro-nutrient elements in Moringa dried leaf powder using the PHWE technique.


  • Yannick Nuapia
  • Said Al-Hamimi
  • Phatsimo G. Matshediso
  • Ewa Cukrowska
  • Hlanganani Tutu
  • Charlotta Turner
  • Luke Chimuka
External organisations
  • University of the Witwatersrand
  • Lund University
  • Botswana Institute for Technology, Research and Innovation
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Analytical Chemistry


  • Macro-nutrient and micro-nutrient elements, Moringa oleifera, Pressurized hot water extraction, Response surface
Original languageEnglish
JournalAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2020
Publication categoryResearch