Sensitization and cross-reactivity patterns of contact allergy to diisocyanates and corresponding amines: Investigation of diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate, diphenylmethane-4,4'-diamine, dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate, and dicylohexylmethane-4,4'-diamine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background: Isocyanates are used in polyurethane production. Dermal exposure to isocyanates can induce contact allergy. The most common isocyanate is diphenylmethane diisocyanate used for industrial purposes. The isomer diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (4,4'-MDI) is used in patch testing. Diphenylmethane-4,4'-diamine (4,4'-MDA) is its corresponding amine. Concurrent reactions to 4,4'-MDI and 4,4'-MDA have been reported, as have concurrent reactions to 4,4'-MDI and dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (4,4'-DMDI). Objectives: To investigate the sensitization capacities and the cross-reactivity of 4,4'-MDI, 4,4'-MDA, 4,4'-DMDI, and dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diamine (4,4'-DMDA). Methods: The guinea-pig maximization test (GPMT) was used. Results: The GPMT showed sensitizing capacities for all investigated substances: 4,4'-MDI, 4,4'-MDA, 4,4'-DMDI, and 4,4'-DMDA (all p < 0.001). 4,4'-MDI-sensitized animals showed cross-reactivity to 4,4'-MDA (p < 0.001) and 4,4'-DMDI (all p < 0.05). 4,4'-MDA-sensitized animals showed cross-reactivity to 4,4'-DMDA (p = 0.008). Conclusion: All of the investigated substances were shown to be strong sensitizers. Animals sensitized to 4,4'-MDI showed cross-reactivity to 4,4'-MDA and 4,4'-DMDI, supporting previous findings in the literature. The aromatic amine 4,4'-MDA showed cross-reactivity to the aliphatic amine 4,4'-DMDA.


External organisations
  • Skåne University Hospital
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Dermatology and Venereal Diseases


  • 4,4'-DMDA, 4,4'-DMDI, 4,4'-MDA, 4,4'-MDI, Allergic contact dermatitis, Amines, Cross-reactions, Guinea-pig maximization test, Isocyanates, Occupational
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)231-241
JournalContact Dermatitis
Issue number4
Early online date2017
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Publication categoryResearch

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