Severity of anxiety– but not depression– is associated with oxidative stress in Major Depressive Disorder

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Severity of anxiety– but not depression– is associated with oxidative stress in Major Depressive Disorder. / Steenkamp, Lisa R.; Hough, Christina M; Reus, Victor I; Jain, Felipe A; Epel, Elissa S; James, S Jill; Morford, Alexandra E.; Mellon, Synthia H; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Lindqvist, Daniel.

In: Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 219, 01.09.2017, p. 193-200.

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Steenkamp, LR, Hough, CM, Reus, VI, Jain, FA, Epel, ES, James, SJ, Morford, AE, Mellon, SH, Wolkowitz, OM & Lindqvist, D 2017, 'Severity of anxiety– but not depression– is associated with oxidative stress in Major Depressive Disorder', Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 219, pp. 193-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.04.042

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Steenkamp, Lisa R. ; Hough, Christina M ; Reus, Victor I ; Jain, Felipe A ; Epel, Elissa S ; James, S Jill ; Morford, Alexandra E. ; Mellon, Synthia H ; Wolkowitz, Owen M ; Lindqvist, Daniel. / Severity of anxiety– but not depression– is associated with oxidative stress in Major Depressive Disorder. In: Journal of Affective Disorders. 2017 ; Vol. 219. pp. 193-200.

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Severity of anxiety– but not depression– is associated with oxidative stress in Major Depressive Disorder

AU - Steenkamp, Lisa R.

AU - Hough, Christina M

AU - Reus, Victor I

AU - Jain, Felipe A

AU - Epel, Elissa S

AU - James, S Jill

AU - Morford, Alexandra E.

AU - Mellon, Synthia H

AU - Wolkowitz, Owen M

AU - Lindqvist, Daniel

PY - 2017/9/1

Y1 - 2017/9/1

N2 - Background Oxidative stress is implicated in both depression and anxiety, but it is currently unclear whether this relates to syndromal diagnoses or trans-diagnostic dimensional symptoms. We examined the relationship between oxidative stress and severity of depression and anxiety symptoms in individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Methods Plasma oxidative stress markers F2-isoprostanes and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and the antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH), were assessed in 69 physically healthy, medication-free MDD subjects. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hamilton Anxiety (HAM-A) and Hamilton Depression (HAM-D) Rating Scales. Total HAM-A and HAM-D scores, along with “core” anxiety and depression subscales, and individual HAM-D items “psychic anxiety” and “depressed mood,” were related to oxidative stress markers. Analyses controlled for age, sex, BMI, and smoking. Results Total HAM-A ratings were positively associated with F2-isoprostanes (β=.26, p=.042) and GSSG (β=.25, p=.049), but not GSH (β=.05, p=.711). Core anxiety severity was positively associated with F2-isoprostanes (β=.34, p=.012) and GSSG, although this did not reach significance (β=.24, p=.074). None of the biological markers were significantly associated with total HAM-D or core depression ratings (all p>.13). Subjects scoring high on “psychic anxiety” had elevated F2-isoprostanes (p=.030) and GSSG (p=.020). This was not seen with “depressed mood” scores (all p>.12). Limitations We assessed peripheral oxidative markers, but their relationship to the brain is unclear. Conclusions Oxidative stress is more closely related to anxiety than depression symptoms in MDD. This highlights the importance of relating oxidative stress to specific symptoms and could provide new insights into the biological correlates of affective disorders.

AB - Background Oxidative stress is implicated in both depression and anxiety, but it is currently unclear whether this relates to syndromal diagnoses or trans-diagnostic dimensional symptoms. We examined the relationship between oxidative stress and severity of depression and anxiety symptoms in individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Methods Plasma oxidative stress markers F2-isoprostanes and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and the antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH), were assessed in 69 physically healthy, medication-free MDD subjects. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hamilton Anxiety (HAM-A) and Hamilton Depression (HAM-D) Rating Scales. Total HAM-A and HAM-D scores, along with “core” anxiety and depression subscales, and individual HAM-D items “psychic anxiety” and “depressed mood,” were related to oxidative stress markers. Analyses controlled for age, sex, BMI, and smoking. Results Total HAM-A ratings were positively associated with F2-isoprostanes (β=.26, p=.042) and GSSG (β=.25, p=.049), but not GSH (β=.05, p=.711). Core anxiety severity was positively associated with F2-isoprostanes (β=.34, p=.012) and GSSG, although this did not reach significance (β=.24, p=.074). None of the biological markers were significantly associated with total HAM-D or core depression ratings (all p>.13). Subjects scoring high on “psychic anxiety” had elevated F2-isoprostanes (p=.030) and GSSG (p=.020). This was not seen with “depressed mood” scores (all p>.12). Limitations We assessed peripheral oxidative markers, but their relationship to the brain is unclear. Conclusions Oxidative stress is more closely related to anxiety than depression symptoms in MDD. This highlights the importance of relating oxidative stress to specific symptoms and could provide new insights into the biological correlates of affective disorders.

KW - Anxiety

KW - F2-isoprostanes

KW - Major Depressive Disorder

KW - Oxidative stress

KW - Oxidized glutathione

KW - Reduced glutathione

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85019741404&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jad.2017.04.042

DO - 10.1016/j.jad.2017.04.042

M3 - Article

VL - 219

SP - 193

EP - 200

JO - Journal of Affective Disorders

T2 - Journal of Affective Disorders

JF - Journal of Affective Disorders

SN - 1573-2517

ER -