Shrub expansion in tundra ecosystems: dynamics, impacts and research priorities

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Recent research using repeat photography, long-term ecological monitoring and dendrochronology has documented shrub expansion in arctic, high-latitude and alpine tundra ecosystems. Here, we (1) synthesize these findings, (2) present a conceptual framework that identifies mechanisms and constraints on shrub increase, (3) explore causes, feedbacks and implications of the increased shrub cover in tundra ecosystems, and (4) address potential lines of investigation for future research. Satellite observations from around the circumpolar Arctic, showing increased productivity, measured as changes in ‘greenness’, have coincided with a general rise in high-latitude air temperatures and have been partly attributed to increases in shrub cover. Studies indicate that warming temperatures, changes in snow cover, altered disturbance regimes as a result of permafrost thaw, tundra fires, and anthropogenic activities or changes in herbivory intensity are all contributing to observed changes in shrub abundance. A large-scale increase in shrub cover will change the structure of tundra ecosystems and alter energy fluxes, regional climate, soil–atmosphere exchange of water, carbon and nutrients, and ecological interactions between species. In order to project future rates of shrub expansion and understand the feedbacks to ecosystem and climate processes, future research should investigate the species or trait-specific responses of shrubs to climate change including: (1) the temperature sensitivity of shrub growth, (2) factors controlling the recruitment of new individuals, and (3) the relative influence of the positive and negative feedbacks involved in shrub expansion.


  • Isla H Myers-Smith
  • Bruce C Forbes
  • Martin Wilmking
  • Martin Hallinger
  • Trevor Lantz
  • Daan Blok
  • Ken D Tape
  • Marc Macias-Fauria
  • Ute Sass-Klaassen
  • Esther Lévesque
  • Stéphane Boudreau
  • Pascale Ropars
  • Luise Hermanutz
  • Andrew Trant
  • Laura Siegwart Collier
  • Stef Weijers
  • Jelte Rozema
  • Shelly A Rayback
  • Niels Martin Schmidt
  • Gabriela Schaepman-Strub
  • And 12 others
  • Sonja Wipf
  • Christian Rixen
  • Cécile B Ménard
  • Susanna Venn
  • Scott Goetz
  • Laia Andreu-Hayles
  • Sarah Elmendorf
  • Virve Ravolainen
  • Jeffrey Welker
  • Paul Grogan
  • Howard E Epstein
  • David S Hik
External organisations
  • Wageningen University
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Ecology
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)045509
Number of pages1
JournalEnvironmental Research Letters
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Publication categoryResearch
Externally publishedYes