Significantly reduced genoprevalence of vaccine-type HPV-16/18 infections among vaccinated compared to non-vaccinated young women 5.5 years after a bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine (Cervarix®) pilot project in Uganda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and some predictors for vaccine and non-vaccine types of HPV infections among bivalent HPV vaccinated and non-vaccinated young women in Uganda. This was a comparative cross sectional study 5.5 years after a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccination (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) pilot project in western Uganda. Cervical swabs were collected between July 2014-August 2014 and analyzed with a HPV genotyping test, CLART® HPV2 assay (Genomica, Madrid Spain) which is based on PCR followed by microarray for determination of genotype. Blood samples were also tested for HIV and syphilis infections as well as CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte levels. The age range of the participants was 15-24 years and mean age was 18.6(SD 1.4). Vaccine-type HPV-16/18 strains were significantly less prevalent among vaccinated women compared to non-vaccinated women (0.5% vs 5.6%, p 0.006, OR 95% CI 0.08 (0.01-0.64). At type-specific level, significant difference was observed for HPV16 only. Other STIs (HIV/syphilis) were important risk factors for HPV infections including both vaccine types and non-vaccine types. In addition, for non-vaccine HPV types, living in an urban area, having a low BMI, low CD4 count and having had a high number of life time sexual partners were also significant risk factors. Our data concurs with the existing literature from other parts of the world regarding the effectiveness of bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine in reducing the prevalence of HPV infections particularly vaccine HPV- 16/18 strains among vaccinated women. This study reinforces the recommendation to vaccinate young girls before sexual debut and integrate other STI particularly HIV and syphilis interventions into HPV vaccination packages.


  • Edward Kumakech
  • Vanja Berggren
  • Henry Wabinga
  • Gabriella Lillsunde-Larsson
  • Gisela Helenius
  • Malin Kaliff
  • Mats Karlsson
  • Samuel Kirimunda
  • Caroline Musubika
  • Sören Andersson
External organisations
  • Makerere University
  • Karolinska Institutet
  • Örebro University Hospital
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
  • Clinical Laboratory Medicine
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0160099
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Aug 1
Publication categoryResearch