Signs in Vector-Electrocardiography (VECG) Predicting the Fibrillatory Propensity of Iodixanol and Mannitol Solutions After Injection Into the Left Coronary Artery of Pigs.

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Rationale and Objectives. To find signs in vector-electrocardiography (VECG) predicting the ventricular fibrillatory propensity (VF-PROP) of iodixanol and mannitol solutions after injection into the left coronary artery (LCA) of pigs. Materials and Methods. Five plasma-isotonic solutions perfused LCA: lod 320 + Na/Ca (iodixanol 320 mg I/mL, 19 mM NaCl, 0.3 mM CaCl2), lod 320 + Mann (iodixanol 320 mg I/mL, 50 mM mannitol), Mann + Na/Ca (240 mM mannitol, 19 mM NaCl, 0.3 mM CaCl2) Mann (275 mM mannitol), and Ringer (representing "physiologic electrolytes"). The first two solutions have at 37 degrees C viscosity 13 mPas and the others <1 mPas. In eight pigs, 20 mL of each solution was injected twice for 10 seconds, and in 15 pigs, each solution was injected for 11-40 seconds (0.5 mL/second) through a wedged catheter in the LCA. If ventricular fibrillation (VF) occurred, injection was stopped and heart was defibrillated. If VF did not occur, perfusion period was 40 seconds. A higher frequency of VF and a shorter period from start of injection until start of VF gave a solution a higher ranking of VF-PROP. Results. The 10-second injections caused no VF. Ringer and lod 320 + Na/Ca caused no VF after 40-second injections, whereas the other solutions caused VF. Ranking the solutions from lowest to highest VF-PROP gave: Ringer = lod 320 + Na/Ca < lod 320 + Mann < Mann + Na/Ca < Mann. Prolongation of QRS time and QTc time were the only VECG signs that showed significant differences (P <.05) between all solutions and correctly ranked the VF-PROP of all solutions in both animal groups. Conclusion. The results fit with the concept that a more physiologic electrolyte composition and a higher viscosity of a test solution will, after start of injection of that solution into LCA, delay changes in the electrolyte composition in myocardial interstitial fluid and also delay start of VF. If a plasma isotonic contrast medium (CM) with lower viscosity than that of iodixanol at 320 mgI/mL were created, we conclude that such a CM should have electrolyte composition closer to that of Ringer than present composition (19 mM NaCl and 0.3 mM CaCl2) to counteract the effects of faster diffusion of nonphysiologic electrolyte composition from the low-viscosity CM to myocardial interstitial fluid.


Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging


  • fibrillation, ventricular, contrast media, coronary arteriography, iodixanol, vector-electrocardiography
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)162-177
JournalAcademic Radiology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Publication categoryResearch