Spatially and temporally resolved IR-DFWM measurement of HCN released from gasification of biomass pellets

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


For the first time, to the best of the authors' knowledge, nonintrusive quantitative measurement of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) released during the devolatilization phase of straw pellets gasification is demonstrated with high spatial and temporal resolution. Mid-infrared degenerate four-wave mixing (IR-DFWM) measurements of HCN were performed by probing the interference-free P(20) line in the v 1 vibrational band at around 3 μm and the IR-DFWM signal was detected with an upconversion-based detector, providing discrimination of thermal noise and increased sensitivity. A novel single-pellet setup consisting of a multi-jet burner was used to provide hot flue gas environments with an even and well-defined temperature distribution, for single straw pellet gasification at atmospheric pressure. The environments had temperatures of 1380 K, 1540 K and 1630 K with a constant oxygen concentration of 0.5 vol%. In order to quantify the amount of HCN released during the devolatilization of straw pellets, calibration measurements were performed in well-defined HCN gas flows. Selected hot water lines were probed with IR-DFWM in the interrogated volume to obtain the instantaneous temperature, which were used to correct the temperature effect. HCN concentrations up to 1500 ppm were detected during the devolatilization stage, and the results indicate a strong temperature dependence of the HCN release.


Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Energy Engineering


  • Biomass, Degenerate four-wave mixing, HCN concentration, Mid-infrared, Upconversion detection
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1337-1344
JournalProceedings of the Combustion Institute
Issue number2
Early online date2018 Aug 8
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Publication categoryResearch