Staging Presymptomatic Type 1 Diabetes: A Scientific Statement of JDRF, the Endocrine Society, and the American Diabetes Association.

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Bibtex

@article{301f33d177094657b5b9b95e17b9565f,
title = "Staging Presymptomatic Type 1 Diabetes: A Scientific Statement of JDRF, the Endocrine Society, and the American Diabetes Association.",
abstract = "Insights from prospective, longitudinal studies of individuals at risk for developing type 1 diabetes have demonstrated that the disease is a continuum that progresses sequentially at variable but predictable rates through distinct identifiable stages prior to the onset of symptoms. Stage 1 is defined as the presence of β-cell autoimmunity as evidenced by the presence of two or more islet autoantibodies with normoglycemia and is presymptomatic, stage 2 as the presence of β-cell autoimmunity with dysglycemia and is presymptomatic, and stage 3 as onset of symptomatic disease. Adoption of this staging classification provides a standardized taxonomy for type 1 diabetes and will aid the development of therapies and the design of clinical trials to prevent symptomatic disease, promote precision medicine, and provide a framework for an optimized benefit/risk ratio that will impact regulatory approval, reimbursement, and adoption of interventions in the early stages of type 1 diabetes to prevent symptomatic disease.",
author = "Insel, {Richard A} and Dunne, {Jessica L} and Atkinson, {Mark A} and Chiang, {Jane L} and Dana Dabelea and Gottlieb, {Peter A} and Greenbaum, {Carla J} and Herold, {Kevan C} and Krischer, {Jeffrey P} and {\AA}ke Lernmark and Ratner, {Robert E} and Rewers, {Marian J} and Schatz, {Desmond A} and Skyler, {Jay S} and Sosenko, {Jay M} and Anette-G Ziegler",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.2337/dc15-1419",
language = "English",
volume = "38",
pages = "1964--1974",
journal = "Diabetes Care",
issn = "1935-5548",
publisher = "American Diabetes Association",
number = "10",

}