The University of Vermont Larner College of Medicine, in collaboration with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), the Alpha-1 Foundation, the American Thoracic Society, the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, the European Respiratory Society, the International Society for Cell & Gene Therapy, and the Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation, convened a workshop titled "Stem Cells, Cell Therapies, and Bioengineering in Lung Biology and Diseases" from July 24 through 27, 2017, at the University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont. The conference objectives were to review and discuss current understanding of the following topics: 1) stem and progenitor cell biology and the role that they play in endogenous repair or as cell therapies after lung injury, 2) the emerging role of extracellular vesicles as potential therapies, 3) ex vivo bioengineering of lung and airway tissue, and 4) progress in induced pluripotent stem cell protocols for deriving lung cell types and applications in disease modeling. All of these topics are research areas in which significant and exciting progress has been made over the past few years. In addition, issues surrounding the ethics and regulation of cell therapies worldwide were discussed, with a special emphasis on combating the growing problem of unproven cell interventions being administered to patients with lung diseases. Finally, future research directions were discussed, and opportunities for both basic and translational research were identified.