Stroke Incidence, Recurrence, and Case-Fatality in Relation to Socioeconomic Position. A Population-Based Study of Middle-Aged Swedish Men and Women.

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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Low socioeconomic status is associated with increased incidence of stroke. This study investigated stroke incidence, recurrence, and case-fatality after stroke among middle-aged Swedish men and women and whether this association differs by gender or stroke subtype. METHODS: A total of 69 625 (49% men) citizens, aged 40 to 65 years, living in the city of Malmö in 1990 were studied in relation to total annual income and occupation class, ie, 2 indicators of socioeconomic status. Incidence of first-ever stroke, stroke recurrence, and case-fatality (death within 28 days or 1 year after stroke) were studied over 10 years of follow-up. RESULTS: During the follow-up, a total of 1648 subjects developed a first-ever stroke of whom 275 also experienced a recurrent stroke. By using Cox regression model with covariate adjustments, the incidence of stroke was significantly increased (relative risk: 1.75, 95% CI:1.36 to 2.25) in women who were in the lowest quartile of income compared with the women being in the highest quartile. Corresponding relative risk in men was 1.29 (1.06 to 1.58). Both in men and women, income was significantly associated with ischemic, but not hemorrhagic, subtypes of stroke. Similar relationships were observed between occupation level and incidence of stroke. In addition, low income was associated with higher 28-day and 1-year fatality rates in men (relative risk: 3.13, 1.35 to 7.24 and 2.17, 1.18 to 4.00, respectively), but not in women. In contrast, recurrence of stroke was inversely associated with income only in women. CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of stroke, stroke recurrence, and case-fatality increased with decreasing socioeconomic status; however, this relationship differed by gender and subtype of events.


Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Neurology


  • gender, socioeconomic status, stroke, case-fatality
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2191-2196
Journal Stroke: a journal of cerebral circulation
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Publication categoryResearch