Suppression-induced forgetting diminishes following a delay of either sleep or wake

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


We investigated the duration of suppression-induced forgetting (SIF), and the extent to which retrieval suppression differs between negative and neutral memories. We further examined if SIF was differently affected by sleep versus wake during the delay interval between retrieval suppression and re-test. Fifty participants first learned to associate neutral words with either neutral or negative images. Then, a subset of the words was shown again, and participants were asked to either recall (Think), or to suppress retrieval of (No-Think) the associated images. Finally, a memory test for all items was performed either immediately after the Think/No-Think (T/NT) phase (No Delay), or after a 3.5 h delay interval containing either sleep or wake. Results revealed a SIF effect only in the No Delay group, indicating that this forgetting effect dissipates already after a 3.5 h delay interval. Negative items were experienced as more intrusive than neutral ones during the T/NT phase.


External organisations
  • Kristianstad University
  • University of Kent
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4-26
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Cognitive Psychology
Issue number1
Early online date2019 Dec 19
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Publication categoryResearch